All posts by Nick Webb

Pazirik Informatics Ltd Website

We are delighted that Balázs Szakonyi will present research investigating the role of horizontal ribs in late Gothic vault construction in Hungary as part of the Modelling Medieval Vaults symposium alongside Gergely Buzás and Balázs Szőke.

At the Modelling Medieval Vaults symposium Buzás Gergely, Balázs Szakonyi and Balázs Szőke will present research investigating a typical vault type that is wide spread in Central Europe on behalf of Pazirik Informatics Ltd.

Besides the vaults still standing in our time, we possess carved stones from numerous perished vaults thanks to archaeological excavations. Several elements from former vaults came to surface which show typical characteristics of these vault types. One of the most important finds from this category came to light during Gergely Buzás’s excavations of 2010 in Pécs. We have created digital scan surveys of these carved stones in the framework of the SzimeAr3D project. The theoretical reconstruction and CAD model of the vault has been created by Balázs Szőke. The lecture will be presented with Balázs Szakonyi translator and 3D graphic artist. One of our goals is to conciliate the Hungarian technical terms with their German and English obverses. The publications and image collections can be inspected on our webpage with a short English commentary.

More information regarding Pazirik can be found on their website. We look forward to hearing more at the symposium.

Bauer Lauterbach Website

As part of the upcoming Modelling Medieval Vaults symposium at the University of Liverpool in London, Thomas Bauer and Jörg Lauterbach will be presenting their investigations of Benedikt Ried’s deconstructive vaults at Prague Castle with Norbert Nußbaum.

Thomas and Jörg have a website of their work, where they specialise in stone historical reconstructions. The site contains a link showing 360 ° panoramas of timber reconstructions of the winding rib vaulted ceiling of the chapel in the Royal Palace of Dresden. The panoramas can be explored online, where you can rotate and zoom to investigate them further.

We are very much looking forward to hearing more about Thomas, Jörg and Norbert’s research at the symposium in July.

Modelling Medieval Vaults Symposium – booking now open

Modelling Medieval Vaults symposium (UoL in London, 14 July 2016, 9:30am—5:00pm)

The University of Liverpool in London, Finsbury Square—Seminar Room 4

Organised by Dr Alex Buchanan and Dr Nick Webb

Tickets can be booked through Eventbrite

Keynote speakers

Professor Santiago Huerta – Technical University of Madrid

Professor Norbert Nußbaum – University of Cologne, with Thomas Bauer and Jörg Lauterbach – Architects and engineers for historic reconstructions, Dresden

Assistant Professor Benjamin Ibarra Sevilla – The University of Texas at Austin

Digital processes

Speakers include:

Dr Danilo Di Mascio – Northumbria University

Dr Nick Webb – University of Liverpool

Dr Rosana Guerra and Dr Paula Fuentes – Technical University of Madrid

Weiyi Pei and Lui Tam – KU Leuven

New questions in 14th-century vaulting

Speakers include:

Dr Alex Buchanan – University of Liverpool

Andrew Budge – Birkbeck College, University of London

The use of digital surveying and analysis techniques, such as laser scanning, photogrammetry, 3D reconstructions or reverse engineering offers the opportunity to re-examine historic works of architecture.

Digital analysis has enabled new research into design processes, construction methods, structural engineering, building archaeology and relationships between buildings. Recent research on Continental European and Central American architecture has established the significance of these techniques, however, as yet there has been little exploitation of digital technologies in the context of medieval architecture in the British Isles. This is despite international recognition of the importance of thirteenth and fourteenth-century English vault design to the history of Gothic architecture in an international context.

The aims of the present symposium are to present new research in this emerging field in order to establish appropriate methodologies using digital tools and identify significant questions for future research in the area.

The symposium will be relevant to anyone with an interest in:

  • Medieval architecture
  • Three-dimensional digital methodologies
  • Digital techniques used for the analysis of historic works of architecture

Symposium cost: £40 for attendees and £25 for students/speakers. Free for student attendees.

Scanning at Ottery St Mary

For the final day of our visit to Devon we travelled from Exeter to Ottery St Mary Church to scan the vaults there.
Ottery St Mary was built by Bishop Grandisson of Exeter, whose tomb chapel in the West Front of Exeter Cathedral we visited two days earlier. He established Ottery as a college of priests in 1337 and the church is correspondingly impressive, a miniature cathedral on a similar plan to Exeter, with vaults clearly modelled on the high vault of the choir at Wells Cathedral. It is therefore widely assumed that Grandisson worked with the designer responsible for the Exeter West Front, William Joy, and possibly also Thomas of Witney, also employed at Exeter, claims we hope our research may help to substantiate.
Our research will also provide data for investigating the international transmission of design ideas. Ottery’s international significance has already been mentioned in an earlier blog post (link). Like Wells (another building associated with both Witney and Joy), it transforms Gothic architecture in ways picked up by Peter Parler, the designer of Prague Cathedral and other late Gothic architects. Twelfth- and thirteenth-century Gothic churches are generally designed in modular form, as a sequence of identical bays consisting of an arcade arch, with a window above and, in grander churches, a middle story in between. Vaults likewise may be analysed as bays, divided one from the next by a transverse rib and intersected by diagonals which criss-cross  the bay, their junction marked by a boss. The high vault of Wells Cathedral is of international significance as the earliest ‘net’ vault, with diagonal ribs extending across more than one bay. The vault design also includes ‘cusping’, subsidiary mouldings added to the ribs, a design concept originating in window tracery. Ottery follows this model, with the additional development that the diagonals curve in three dimensions rather than two, again like the flowing lines of window tracery. The cusping stands proud of the surface of the vault, adding to the visual conceit that the ribs form a net thrown over the surface of the vault rather than directly relating to its geometry. The church also has vaults with ribs of multiple curvatures, domical vaults and a sixteenth-century fan vault with hanging pendants, making it a very rich resource for our research.
Our trip to Ottery St Mary was funded by the Paul Mellon Centre.

Scanning at Exeter Cathedral

On Wednesday 30th March we travelled to Devon to collect more survey data from two sites; Exeter Cathedral and Ottery St Mary Church. We spent two days at Exeter and will spend a final day at Ottery.

IMG_2703

Surprisingly, we were joined by a team at Exeter Cathedral who were also there to create a model of it. Whereas we were using digital scanning techniques to produce a highly accurate model of the vaults at Exeter, they were using Lego to create a scale model within the cathedral. You can follow their progress here. We were able to scan the uninterrupted length of high vaults along the nave and choir, the central porch of the screen facade, the crossing, the miniature vaults in the pulpitum and those of the sedilia. These miniature vaults are particularly interesting to us, being documented designs by Thomas of Witney, a mason who also worked at Wells Cathedral, a site we’ve already scanned. At both Exeter and Wells, Witney experimented with the use of liernes, additional decorative ribs, of which Exeter’s are some of the earliest surviving examples. With help from the cathedral archaeologist, John Allan, we were able to identify additional sites to survey, such as the site of the former North walk of the cloister, which was situated between the external buttressing to the south of the nave.

The trip to Exeter was funded by the University of Liverpool’s Interdisciplinary Network Fund.

Funding to scan vaults at Ely Cathedral

Through the Lambarde Fund, we have received a grant from the Society of Antiquaries to scan the lierne vaults at Ely Cathedral, which we intend to carry out towards the end of the summer. The main vaults we will scan and analyse are:

  • Retrochoir (tierceron vaults built under Hugh of Northwold  1234 and 1252, thus, like the Chapter House at Chester, immediately after and influenced by the nave at Lincoln).
  • Octagon (tierceron vaults constructed in timber after the collapse of the Norman crossing in 1322 and showing a similar interest in centralised space as the Wells Lady Chapel).
  • First three bays of presbytery (dated c. 1330 and described by Pevsner as the earliest lierne vault in East Anglia) which also includes an aisle vault in first 3 bays of the north aisle.
  • Lady Chapel – lierne vault of a stellate pattern, built after the Octagon and choir so c.1335-50.
  • Prior Crauden’s Chapel – a vault reconstructed by Willis from the evidence of the springing blocks.

We hope to investigate the decisions taken by Willis when reconstructing the vaults of St Catherine’s Chapel and Prior Crauden’s Chapel in the 1840s.

In addition to forming a case study in its own right, we also hope the  data collected will also allow us to explore differences in vaulting methods between the West Country and South Eastern Decorated styles.

Photo by DAVID ILIFF. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

Map of British Medieval Vaults

On the vaults page we have started a map which locates significant Medieval vaults in the British Isles.  So far we have included sites already visited and scanned as well as sites we intend to visit. We have also located some initial vaults of interest which may be documented as the project progresses. Please contact us with suggestions of sites to add!

Modelling Medieval Vaults – Call for Papers

Modelling Medieval Vaults symposium at the University of Liverpool in London, 14 July 2016.

Through the University of Liverpool’s Interdisciplinary Network Fund we are organising a symposium primarily exploring the use of digital techniques to analyse medieval vaults. The synopsis can be found below and on our events page.

The use of digital surveying and analysis techniques, such as laser scanning, photogrammetry, 3D reconstructions or reverse engineering offers the opportunity to re-examine historic works of architecture. In the context of medieval vaults, this has enabled new research into three-dimensional design processes, construction methods, structural engineering, building archaeology and relationships between buildings.

Recent research on Continental European and Central American vaults has established the significance of these techniques, however, as yet there has been little exploitation of digital technologies in the context of medieval vaults in the British Isles. This is despite international recognition of the importance of thirteenth and fourteenth-century English vault design to the history of Gothic architecture in an international context.

The aims of the present symposium are to present new research in this emerging field in order to establish appropriate methodologies using digital tools and identify significant questions for future research in the area.

Abstracts (500 words maximum) are invited for 20 minute papers on the following subjects:

  • Representation and analysis of medieval vaults using digital technologies.
  • Investigations of British tierceron, lierne or fan vaults.
  • Digital techniques used for the analysis of historic works of architecture applicable to gothic vaulted buildings.

Our intention is that proceedings will be published in a suitable journal.

Deadline for abstracts: Friday 13th May 2016

Enquiries and abstracts to be addressed to Nick Webb email.

Symposium date: Thursday 14th July 2016

Location: The University of Liverpool in London, Finsbury Square.

 

Digital Past 2016

On 10th and 11th February 2016 Nick attended Digital Past 2016, an annual conference organised by the Royal Commission on the Ancient Monuments of Wales focussing on the use of digital tools and techniques in the context of heritage assets.

Projects linked closely to the vaults research were particularly informative, for example Dr Maurice Murphy’s use of laser scan data in conjunction with Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) to serve as conservation and analysis documents. In the context of the vaults project, we are keen to investigate the use of HBIM to assist in our continuing analysis of the geometry of medieval vaults, which is very complex in terms of the amount of geometric data gathered. An Irish government funded project 3D-Icons was very revealing in terms of the processes required to create accessible digital models of significant monuments and buildings. For example, converting laser scan data to mesh models with rendered textures, and finally making these easily viewable to the public.

The conference presented a number of other intriguing projects, for example Professor Bob Stone’s use of drones and immersive virtual reality to inspire communities to engage with local histories, as well as the use of Gigapixel photography to document Welsh chapels and make available the interactive views online. The Cynefin project to digitise Tithe maps showed how Gigapixel photography can be used to copy large and delicate maps without damaging the original, and their consequent overlay with modern digital maps to provide a free resource for the public and researchers to use.

The conference was a great success and we look forward to returning next year, where we hope to present an update of the vaults project.

Scanning at Nantwich St Mary’s Church

On Friday 13th November 2015 we visited Nantwich St Mary’s to scan the medieval vaults in the choir, as well as the intriguing reconstructed vaults in the crossing by George Gilbert Scott. Below is a timelapse video showing the laser scanner in action in the choir operated by Nick, whilst J.R. records the vaults for photogrammetry purposes, and Alex provides a short guided tour of the sculpture on the misericords in the medieval choir stalls.

Even with the timelapse speed, the rotation of the scanner seems slow. The individual scan provides a point cloud model of the architecture immediately around it, which when combined with other scans, gives a highly detailed and accurate point cloud of the entire vaults in the choir. The next stage of the process will be to interpret the data using a number of digital modelling techniques in order to provide a better understanding of the underlying vault geometry.