Tag Archives: Tewkesbury Abbey

Scanning at Tewkesbury and Gloucester

In July 2017, we travelled to Tewkesbury Abbey and Gloucester Cathedral to create digital surveys of their respective vaults. First, we surveyed the abbey at Tewkesbury using our standard methods of laser scanning and photogrammetry, with the additional method of total station for the choir vaults. Total station surveying enables us to manually capture specific points of the vault ribs, as opposed to laser scanning which captures all points. Searching for specific points to document using total station is very labour intensive, particularly when trying to capture the vaults above. Based on advice from our friend David Wendland, who is carrying out exciting research on vaults in continental Europe, we worked in a pair with one of us roughly locating points using the total station’s laser, and the other laying on the floor looking up at the vaults through a pair of binoculars to locate the precise point that needed to be documented. This was a particularly long and arduous task over a day and a half, however, the resulting points mean we can very quickly and efficiently use the specific points documented to trace the vault rib geometries. Laser scanning, on the other hand, is much more time consuming in locating the required points amongst many million others to trace them. Both methods create accurate results and therefore having two sets of data ensures an even higher level of confidence in our methodology and findings. Once we completed our surveying, we backed up our data and travelled to Gloucester Cathedral to start the second phase of our field trip. We also found time in between to visit Pershore Abbey, where we already have access to a laser scan survey to investigate the vault geometries there. This scan data was very generously given to us to use by the abbey to use for our research, and we hope to be able to show are results of this in the next year. The Pershore Abbey laser scanning was particularly high in its quality, surveyed by CGD Ltd.

At Gloucester we continued with our primary method of laser scanning to survey the majority of the cathedral’s vaults, with particular attention given to the west end, transepts, crossing, choir and presbytery vault bays. Whilst at Gloucester, we were able to use our scan data to assist the cathedral architects in the installation of a new disabled platform to the east end as part of HLF funded Project Pilgrim, by linking scans from the crypt to those above to build up a very detailed picture of how the spaces connect, which was previously not accurate enough. This demonstrates how our survey data can be used by other stakeholders for mutual gain.

We are very grateful for the Liverpool School of Architecture’s David Foster Wicks endowment fund, which funded the field work and has enabled us to continue developing our research for Tracing the Past.

A celebration of the life and work of Richard K. Morris

On Saturday 20 March, Alex went to London to attend a study day at the Courtauld Institute, organised by the British Archaeological Association and the Ancient Monuments Society to commemorate Richard K. Morris (1943- 2015), whose work on Decorated architecture in England is very relevant to our project. Richard specialised in the detailed archaeological analysis which is an essential counterpart to our own research and specialised in the study of West Country buildings. His methodology involved the use of mouldings to reconstruct both building chronologies and the careers of individual masons and offered readings of such buildings as Wells Cathedral, Exeter Cathedral, St Augustine’s Abbey at Bristol, Tewkesbury Abbey and Sherborne Abbey, all of which have significant vaults.

The study day offered a varied programme including both new and established scholars. Of particular interest for our project were papers by James Cameron and Peter Draper which discussed medieval architectural drawings: both those which survive (a huge archive of drawings cut on the rocks around an 11th-century temple in Bhojpur, India) and those whose one-time existence might be suggested by the evidence of buildings whose detailed similarities are hard to explain.

Another relevant paper by James Hillson discussed the lierne vault of St Stephen’s Chapel Westminster, which he identifies as a design of the 1340s, rather than the 1290s as most previous interpretations have suggested. The problem is compounded by the loss of the original vaults after the fire at the Palace of Westminster in 1834, although detailed drawings were made and measurements taken by architect Charles Barry and communicated to Robert Willis for his research. If Hillson is right, this redating would mean that the Westminster designs can no longer be identified as the earliest true lierne vault and its relationship with other lierne vaults, such as those at Exeter, Bristol and Wells could be reversed, for the lierne vaults at Wells date from around 1330 and those at Exeter are earlier. The dating of the Bristol vaults remains a matter of controversy, into which Hillson opted not to wade.

Finally, vaults made a virtuoso appearance in a paper by Andrew Budge, who spoke on the chancel at St Mary’s Warwick, which has a tierceron vault with additional ‘skeleton’ ribs. Although Budge drew attention to a number of English examples of such vaulting, at St Augustine’s Bristol, the pulpita (screens) of St David’s Cathedral and  Southwell Minster, the Easter Sepulchre of Lincoln Cathedral, stairway vaults at Thornton Abbey and Wells Cathedral and around the apse of Peterborough Cathedral, he also pointed out their existence in the so-called ‘tonsura’ at Magdeburg Cathedral. It was suggested that Thomas Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick (1313-1369), who was buried in the chancel, might have visited Magdeburg en route to or from crusading activities and that the inclusion of skeleton vaults above his tomb might therefore represent an aspect of a ‘biography’ in stone. This of course offers some of the same problems about knowledge transfer as had already been addressed by James Cameron in relation to near-duplicate designs for sedilia. Whatever their meaning, these vaults amply demonstrate the exuberant inventiveness of architects of the Decorated period, whose methods we are seeking to explore.

Overall the day offered a wonderful opportunity to pay tribute to the work and influence of a kind and generous scholar with exemplary commitment both to his subject and to future scholarship.