Tag Archives: Ely Cathedral

Scanning at Norwich Cathedral

This week we have been scanning at Norwich cathedral. This is the biggest site we’ve tackled to date – the whole Norman cathedral was covered with lierne vaults in the 15th century and there is also a tierceron vaulted cloister and a 14th-century lierne vault in the so-called Ethelbert Gate into the cathedral precinct.

Like other sites we have previously scanned, including Gloucester cathedral and Tewkesbury abbey, Norwich cathedral remains largely a Romanesque building, originally built as a visible symbol of the Norman Conquest of 1066. The elevations display the massive piers and round-headed arches typical of Romanesque architecture. Although undoubtedly impressive, this style would have looked very old-fashioned by the 14th century, so when the central spire blew down in 1362, damaging the east end of the building, the monks might have seen this as a good opportunity to update their church. The presbytery clerestory (top storey of windows) was rebuilt with Perpendicular tracery and, in the fifteenth century, the whole building was vaulted. The Norman walls had not been intended to carry stone vaults, so we will be interested to explore what effects these might have had on the existing fabric. Moreover, in reverse, the existing bay dimensions would have placed specific requirements on the 15th-century designers, inevitably affecting their artistic freedom.

We selected Norwich as one of our case studies for a number of reasons. Firstly, Professor Robert Willis noted that the cloister vaults showed a number of different 3D forms, despite all following the same 2D plan. Such situations – which we knew existed at Wells cathedral and have also found at Exeter – provide very interesting data for our analysis, revealing the sophistication of medieval design processes. We are therefore very much looking forward to interrogating our scan data once it has been processed. It may also provide further clues for understanding the sequencing of the cloister – the dates at which the different parts were erected – which has long been an interesting puzzle for archaeologists.

In addition, Norwich will provide an interesting comparison with Ely cathedral, as we know from documentary evidence that the same named masons worked on both sites. Members of the Ramsey family worked at Ely and Norwich in the early fourteenth century (as well as at St Stephen’s Chapel in the Palace of Westminster, whose surviving undercroft we have also scanned). Our data may help to identify whether the Ramseys and their teams used the same design methods at different sites and whether their approach was different from our other West Country vaults.

Finally, it has been argued by Frank Woodman that the vault of the Ely Lady Chapel is not 14th-century, as had always been assumed, but dates from the 15th century. He used the high vault at Norwich as a comparison for dating purposes, therefore it will be interesting to see whether laser scan data can be used to support or disprove his theory. The Norwich cathedral lierne vaults are the latest in date that we have scanned and we will be looking to see whether methods had remained constant from the 14th century or whether familiarity with the techniques had enabled improvements.

We are very grateful to all the staff at the cathedral, especially Roland Harris, the Cathedral Archaeologist, for facilitating our visit and making us feel welcome in this beautiful building.

Digital Heritage 2018 Presentation

In October we attended Digital Heritage 2018 in San Francisco. Here we presented our initial investigations into the vault design of the Lady Chapel at Ely Cathedral, as well as outlining our digital methodology which enables the research to be carried out. The next stage of this case study is to focus on dissemination as well as identifying possible trends with other vaults at Ely, as well as comparisons with sites locally and nationally.

Whilst at the conference we saw several intriguing presentations, such as Jongwook Lee’s framework for managing risk in Korean wooden heritage buildings using Heritage Building Information Modelling and Virtual Reality, Gabriele Guidi’s reconstruction of the hidden Roman Circus in Milan, as well as excellent keynotes from Google and Artec3D.

The Architecture and Archaeology of Ely: Papers in memory of Anne Holton-Krayenbuh

We were delighted to have the opportunity to present our initial findings on the tracing floor processes of the 14th century vaults at Ely cathedral as part of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society’s day investigating the Architecture and Archaeology of Ely, in memory of Anne Holton-Krayenbuh. We discussed our work to date on the medieval vault designs of Bishop Hotham’s choir vaults, both in the main vessel as well as the north aisle, and the particular research problems we’ve faced compared to other sites of investigation given that we appear to have uneven impost levels across vault bays.

 

It was excellent to hear from the other speakers at the event, starting with Dr Catherine Hills discussing the clothing and jewellery discovered at local burial sites during the time of Etheldreda. Next, Ely cathedral archaeologist Dr Roland Harris presenting an overview of the Romanesque parts of the cathedral, and we are keen to share our survey data with Roland to assist in future building work. Rebecca Lane from Historic England then presented findings based on surveys of Ely’s early urban buildings, which surprisingly included a tierceron vault in the cellar of one of the high street shops. Dr John Maddison gave an excellent talk on Bishop Hotham’s tomb in the cathedral, and the possible solution of it now being two separate pieces. Elizabeth Stazicker, the cathedral archivist, then concluded with a talk highlighting a few of the fascinating artefacts in her custody, as well as reminiscing on her time with Anne Holton-Krayenbuh.

 

It was an insightful and stimulating day, and we were very grateful for the opportunity to be part of it. We look forward to future events organised by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, where we can hopefully return in future once our research progresses.

 

The Architecture and Archaeology of Ely: Papers in memory of Anne Holton-Krayenbuh was held at The Maltings in Ely on 10th March 2018.

4th Annual Construction History Conference

On Saturday 8th April, we presented a paper to the 4th Annual Conference of the Construction History Society, which took place in the congenial surroundings of Queens’ College, Cambridge. Robert Willis argued that Queens’ was a perfect example of a medieval college, although we were meeting in the more modern buildings on the other side of the Cam, reached by the famous ‘Mathematical Bridge’, designed by James Essex, who also worked on the lantern of Ely Cathedral which we scanned last year. The medieval fabric of Queens’ includes a beautiful example of a lierne vault in its gate-house – perhaps a future scanning project?

Our paper ‘Tracing Tiercerons: an evaluation of the significant properties of thirteenth and fourteenth-century tierceron vaults in England’, is available here: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/3006059/.

It was good to catch up with old friends, including Santiago Huerta, and to hear the latest news from our friend David Wendland’s project ‘Design Principles in Late-Gothic Vault Construction’ ). On this occasion, Dr Wendland presented with his collaborator Frédéric Degenève, one of the stonemasons working at Strasbourg Cathedral. Their paper ‘How to order fitting components for looping ribs: Design procedures for the stone members of complex Late Gothic vaults’ was a fascinating reconstruction of the methods used to prepare the voussoirs and bosses required by geometrically complex vaults such as the ‘Hall of Arms’ in the Albrechtsburg Meissen, built in 1521 by Jakob Heilmann. Wendland’s digital analysis of such vaults has demonstrated that all the ribs are formed using circular arcs in three dimensions. In this paper, he provided a convincing explanation of how the essential information could be transferred from the tracing floor to the block of stone using copper templates, ‘baivels’ (or square edges) and a rod to record key dimensions. The proposed method has been tested by and found to meet all the stonemason’s requirements, without any need for stereometric projections.

It was also useful to have the opportunity to meet and discuss our project with others who have also used digital recording methods, including Elizabeth Shotton, from Trinity College, Dublin, who shared her Irish Research Council funded project Minor Harbours, which has used digital methods to identify and analyse changes to the smaller Irish harbours over time.

The full conference programme is available here: http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/Downloads/fourth-annual-chs-conference-programme.pdf and proceedings are available in print from the Construction History Society.

Funding to scan vaults at Ely Cathedral

Through the Lambarde Fund, we have received a grant from the Society of Antiquaries to scan the lierne vaults at Ely Cathedral, which we intend to carry out towards the end of the summer. The main vaults we will scan and analyse are:

  • Retrochoir (tierceron vaults built under Hugh of Northwold  1234 and 1252, thus, like the Chapter House at Chester, immediately after and influenced by the nave at Lincoln).
  • Octagon (tierceron vaults constructed in timber after the collapse of the Norman crossing in 1322 and showing a similar interest in centralised space as the Wells Lady Chapel).
  • First three bays of presbytery (dated c. 1330 and described by Pevsner as the earliest lierne vault in East Anglia) which also includes an aisle vault in first 3 bays of the north aisle.
  • Lady Chapel – lierne vault of a stellate pattern, built after the Octagon and choir so c.1335-50.
  • Prior Crauden’s Chapel – a vault reconstructed by Willis from the evidence of the springing blocks.

We hope to investigate the decisions taken by Willis when reconstructing the vaults of St Catherine’s Chapel and Prior Crauden’s Chapel in the 1840s.

In addition to forming a case study in its own right, we also hope the  data collected will also allow us to explore differences in vaulting methods between the West Country and South Eastern Decorated styles.

Photo by DAVID ILIFF. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0